Archive for the ‘Processing’ Category

Anybody for some wine…sort of?

August 15, 2010

A good glass of red wine is appreciated by many as an accompaniment to their meal. And wine is often used to add that special flavour to a recipe we are cooking. However, there’s a new wine product on the market which comes neither in a bottle nor in a carton, but in a bag. It’s called wine flour.

Wine flour is made by taking grape skins and seeds (called pomace in the wine-making industry), drying and sifting them, and then milling them until they are incredibly fine. The resulting flour offers many of the healthy components that researchers have discovered in red wine, such as the anti-oxidant resveratrol. It is also rich in iron, calcium and fibre, and is a good source of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids.

Food technologists and recipe developers claim that wine flour has no impact on a product’s texture when used in calculated amounts. However, it does have a significant effect on taste and colour. Of note is the deep burgundy hue it gives to products and dishes to which it is added.

Wine flour is already being used or trialled in foods such as breads, crackers, bagels, muffins, cereal bars, pasta, as well as protein beverages or tea. Restaurant menus in the USA and Canada list items such as Cabernet pizza dough, Purple-hued Fettuccine with Baby Octopus, Olives and Tomatoes and Cabernet Chocolate Lava Cake, to name a few.

I have not come across wine flour or wine flour products in Malta yet, but would not mind tasting any of them given the above menu items. Of course, the sustainability aspect and health value of wine flour are noteworthy as well. What do you think?

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Red meat – How much is too much?

July 13, 2010

In recent years we have been hearing a lot about the need to reduce our consumption of red meat and to avoid eating processed meats. Why is this so?

First of all, it is important to define red meat and processed meats.

1. Red meat refers to beef, pork, lamb and goat from domesticated animals, including the minced format of these.

2. Processed meat refers to meat preserved by smoking, curing or salting, or addition of chemical preservatives. This includes meats such as ham, bacon, luncheon meat, corned beef, salami, hot dogs and some other sausages.

The health issues around meat consumption are varied:

It is well known that most red meats, processed or unprocessed, are a source of cholesterol and saturated fats. It is also well known that most processed meats are high in sodium. A regular high fat, or high cholesterol, or high sodium intake increases the risk for heart disease due to facilitating obesity, narrowing the arteries and promoting high blood pressure among others. And in many developed countries, intake of red and processed meats is high.

Currently, there is also strong evidence that red and processed meats increase the risk for colorectal (bowel) cancer.  This is because:

  • They contain a red-coloured compound called haem, which has been shown to damage the lining of the colon.
  • They stimulate production of N-nitroso compounds in the digestive system. These are cancer-causing substances due to their potential to damage DNA in cells.

An interesting research study published this May offered the first systematic review and meta-analysis of the worldwide evidence for how eating unprocessed red meat vs. processed red meat relates to risk of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes.

The results showed that, on average, each 50 gram daily serving of processed meat (about 1-2 slices of cold cuts meats or 1 hot dog) was associated with a 42% higher risk of developing heart disease and a 19% higher risk of developing diabetes. In contrast, eating unprocessed red meat was not associated with risk of developing heart disease or diabetes.

One thing the researches uncovered was that unprocessed red and processed red meats (available in the United States) contained similar average amounts of saturated fat and cholesterol. Yet, processed meats contained, on average, 4 times more sodium and 50% more nitrate preservatives. The researchers, therefore, concluded that possibly “differences in salt and preservatives, rather than fats, might explain the higher risk of heart disease and diabetes seen with processed meats, but not with unprocessed red meats.”

Of note is that animal experiments have shown that nitrate preservatives can promote artery narrowing and reduce glucose tolerance. These two effects increase the risk of heart disease and diabetes.

So how much is too much?

Current recommendations by various health organizations are as follows:

  • If red meat is part of your diet, consume no more than 500g cooked weight (700-750g uncooked weight) per week, including both processed and unprocessed meats.
  • Avoid processed meats as much as possible.

The bottom line: Opt for fish, lean poultry and rabbit if you want to consume meat, and find alternative non-meat fillings for your daily sandwiches (e.g. low fat cheese, or home-made  bean, chick pea or lentil pastes). If you still want to include processed cold cuts of meat in your diet, choose those which are low in fat and pale pink in colour. The latter often have a lower nitrate content (nitrate is used to preserve the natural red / pink colour of meat during processing).

For more information visit

http://www.wcrf-uk.org/preventing_cancer/diet/meat_on_the_menu.php

Renata Micha, Sarah K. Wallace, Dariush Mozaffarian. Red and Processed Meat Consumption and Risk of Incident Coronary Heart Disease, Stroke, and Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Circulation, 2010; DOI: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.924977

Eat local – Eat seasonal – Eat a ‘kiwi-stick'(?)

June 5, 2010

We’ve been hearing a lot lately about the importance of ‘eating local and seasonal’. The reasons focus mainly on the need to support local producers and the local economy, to reduce pollution arising from the transportation and storage of food, to try to eat produce in its freshest state possible for maximum benefit of nutrients, and to lessen the demand for processed food, resulting in less pollution from manufacturing processes and less use of preservatives, and hence less health risks for humans.

International, national and business-led campaigns with the ‘eat local’ and ‘eat seasonal’ message emerge weekly.

In Malta we have the Naturalment Malti campaign led by the Ministry of Resources and Rural Affairs. This campaign promotes consumption of local fruits and vegetables, as well as other locally produced foods such as honey, ricotta, rabbit and wine, among others.

An interesting campaign was launched recently by McDonalds Italy:  the ‘Mc-Italy menu’. The goal was to present consumers with a range of menu items using a variety of local ingredients. These included Italian products such as extra virgin olive oil, parmesan cheese, artichokes, onions, bresaola (low-fat dry beef sliced thinly and eaten cold), pancetta and a 100% Italian beef patty in a locally produced bun.

A variety of salads with local produce are also sold at McDonalds Italy outlets;  but the latest trend is the ‘kiwi-stick’. This is literally a speared kiwi fruit (grown in the Agro-Pontino countryside just south of Rome) which can be eaten on-the-go as if it were an ice lollipop.

The kiwi stick is an item in the McDonalds Italy Frescallegre packages. In winter, bags of local seasonal fruit are sold. These have included, for example, apples from the northern Piedmont and peaches from Emilia Romagna. This summer, the company plans to use Sicilian oranges to make ice cream.

Yet, the ‘Mc-Italy menu’ was not met without controversy. The President of the Slow Food movement – Carlo Petrini – accepted the campaign with reservations. He asked for transparency regarding the fairness of the price paid to local farmers and artisans for the ingredients, and also queried how the sensory qualities of the Italian ingredients would be ensured in the end-product. He was also concerned with respect to the potential standardisation of these ingredients if the campaign was launched globally, thus jeopardising the true traditional Italian taste.

Across the pond, in Canada, another food company – Hellmann’s – is sponsoring a campaign promoting consumption of local Canadian food. Click on the link below to see their video which spells out clearly the rationale for eating seasonal and local.  Though our balance of imports and exports here in Malta cannot be compared, the different arguments and messages will get you thinking.

So next time you go food shopping, whilst keeping healthy eating as one of your main goals, do make that effort to check if you can buy local and seasonal, to satisfy both your nutritional needs and your appetite…and to show a bit of patriotism.

For more on the mentioned campaigns read here:

http://www.mrra.gov.mt/index.asp

http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/10149/1061601-28.stm#ixzz0q0XuU0nH

http://www.slowfood.com/sloweb/eng/dettaglio.lasso?cod=C2744B880501e2AE0AjlMmE90175

To see the video, click here: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dIsEG2SFOvM